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Manitoba Crop Report and Crop Weather report: No. 14

Conditions as of August 2, 2016

Winter wheat and fall rye harvest is underway in Manitoba. To date, preliminary reports indicate winter wheat yields range from 60 to 95 bu/acre, and fall rye yields range from 40 to 90 bu/acre.

Weekend thunderstorms resulted in variable amounts of precipitation, hail activity and lodging of crops across some areas of Manitoba.

The majority of spring seeded crops are either grain-filling or podding, with some of the later seeded crops finishing up flowering.

Warm, dry weather during the week allowed for livestock producers to make good progress on first and second cut haying operations.

Southwest Region

A week of warm, dry conditions was followed by a weekend of weather that brought heavy rains, hail and wind to areas of the Southwest Region. Precipitation amounts varied, with reports of 10 to 60 mm of rain; some areas reported higher amounts. The Russell, Shoal Lake and Oakburn areas are having crop lodging issues from high winds and rains.

Winter wheat and fall rye harvest has begun with initial reports of winter wheat in the 60 to 70 bu/acre range and fall rye from 40 to 50 bu/acre. Quality is reported as good with low levels of fusarium damaged kernels. Spring cereals are maturing and some early seeded crop is a couple a weeks from pre-harvest application. The majority of the canola crop is done flowering and in pod fill stage. Sclerotinia is evident in several fields but it remains too early to estimate amount of damage.

Peas are starting to turn colour mostly due to maturity; however, excess moisture conditions have been favourable for disease infection. Flax is done flowering. Sunflowers are flowering and are benefiting from warm weather. Corn is tasseling and is also benefiting from heat and moisture. Majority of the soybeans are done flowering and are in the pod fill stage.
It was a good week for livestock producers to put up feed. Yields reported throughout the region are above average with average quality. Pastures benefitted from rains and are doing well. Dugouts are 100 per cent full.

Northwest Region

There was thunderstorm activity throughout the Northwest Region over the weekend. However, actual rainfall amounts were variable; amounts ranged from 15 mm north of Roblin area to 23 mm in parts of The Pas to minimal amounts in the Swan Valley. Some crop lodging due to rain and/or wind is evident throughout the entire region. There was some light hail north of Roblin and severe weather in the Dauphin area, but no significant damage has been reported as of yet. Soil moisture conditions are variable, ranging from adequate in most areas to excessive in some parts of the Swan Valley, The Pas and south of Ste Rose. Crops in these areas, especially canola, are showing the effects of excessive moisture with yellowing and crop loss in low lying areas. In general, most field crops throughout the region continue to advance nicely and are in relatively good to excellent condition, with the exception of poor canola fields in those areas impacted by excessive moisture.

With regards to crop stage of growth, fall rye and winter wheat crops are starting to mature and some winter cereal harvesting began in the Dauphin area. The perennial ryegrass harvest is also underway. Most spring wheat is in the dough stage with some color change. Some areas have potential for high protein wheat. Canola continues to develop rapidly with roughly 10 per cent of the canola flowering and 90 per cent podded. Field peas are also advancing quickly with reports indicating that approximately 95 per cent of the field peas are podded with some excellent yield potential in the Roblin area. The majority of the soybeans are in the R7 to R8 stage of growth.

Aster yellows are reported in canola in the Swan Valley; low levels are reported to date. Some oat blast in the Roblin area is reported. Reports of disease and insect activity are minimal but producers continue to monitor crops closely for the presence of any pest activity.

Favorable weather conditions last week finally allowed for good progress with haying operations. Some first cut was still being put up and second cut harvest has begun as well. Some chopped silage was harvested around Makinak. In addition, grass seed residue is being baled for feed. Pasture growth ranges from abundant to adequate.

Central Region

Average temperatures prevailed much of the week, increasing over the weekend in the Central Region. Much of the region saw eight days and more without rainfall, the longest stretch since late May. A major storm system blew through the region on Monday, with high winds and rainfall accumulation as high as 75 mm and more. Western areas of the region received little or no rain. Higher amounts were reported in Carman at 15 to 25 mm, Altona and Rosenort 30 mm, Sewell 40 mm, Letellier, Morris and Osborne 50 mm, and south of Winkler/southwest of Morris received 75 mm and higher. Hail was reported in the Headingley area.

High humidity limited drying conditions, increasing potential for disease infections in crops and interfering with haying operations. Standing water is still a concern. Yellowing and crop thinning due to excess moisture is evident. Field access is still an issue for many. As crops start to mature, additional rainfall will not be utilized by crop growth.
Cereals continue to advance and early seeded crops are close to maturity. Pre-harvest applications will begin soon. Lodging is reported in some of the earliest seeded fields, a result of high winds and thunderstorm activity. Die back due to root rots is evident due to saturated soil conditions. Premature ripening is also noticeable in scattered plants and adjacent to drains and low areas.

The later seeded canola is growing rapidly and flowering is almost complete. Early seeded canola is fully podded; slight seed colour change in lower pods. Swathing may start as early as next week. Some fields are doing well, despite wet conditions. Lodging is evident, due to high winds and soft field conditions. Sclerotinia infections are becoming more evident, especially in fields that didn’t receive a fungicide application.

Corn is growing rapidly. Corn fields that have had good growth and received reasonable amounts of rain are measuring over 1.83 metres high. Tassels and silk are emerged, and pollination is occurring. Soybeans continue to flower and pod. Many fields range from R3 to R4. Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is still noticeable in a number of fields, although recovery has been seen when fields dry. Low areas are suffering, as in all crops, and plants have succumbed to excess moisture and root rot diseases. Bacterial blight is evident in many fields. Sunflowers are flowering, in the R4 to R5.5 stage, and are being monitored for head insects.

Many pea fields are close to harvest and pre-harvest applications will begin this week when field conditions allow. Stands look good where excess moisture is not an issue. Plants in low areas have died back; more losses are expected due to poor/damaged roots. Yields will be lower this year. Boll formation is complete in most flax fields, and colour change is evident. Some perennial ryegrass has been cut; no yield reports to date.

Fall rye and winter wheat harvest continues. Pre-harvest applications and swathing continues. Fields are in good to excellent condition, although water damage is evident in many. Some symptoms of fusarium head blight are noticeable. Winter wheat yield are 70 to 95 bu/acre to date. Early yield reports for fall rye range from 75 to 90 bu/acre with some ergot present.

Beneficial predators are evident in good numbers in most fields. Insect monitoring continues for insects including lygus, aphids and grasshoppers, with numbers low to date. Weeds are becoming more evident, supported by the constant moisture in fields. Barnyard grass is poking above the crop canopy in many places.

Good growth of forages continues, as does second cut. Lots of hay was baled last week with the stretch of dry weather. High humidity is an issue for drying of swaths. Many producers are wrapping bales. Some producers have lost a significant amount of first cut feed due to bales heating/moulding. Some greenfeed and cereals are being cut for silage. With late cutting of forages due to the wet weather conditions, nutritional value of forages is lower and fibre content is higher. There is abundant grass growth in pastures. Livestock water supply is adequate.

Eastern Region

For most of last week, the weather was sunny and warm in the Eastern Region which allowed fields to dry. Standing water was minimal for the most part and symptoms of moisture stress on plants were becoming less evident. Crop development in warm season crops accelerated in these conditions. However, on Sunday, severe thunderstorms with strong winds and heavy downpours occurred throughout the Eastern Region. Rainfall amounts varied from 5 mm to over 60 mm with many districts receiving between 25 and 45 mm. Some instances of lodging in crops because of these storms were noted. Standing water in fields is widely evident again.

Winter cereals in the Eastern Region are mostly mature with the remaining crop in the late hard dough growth stage. Pre-harvest applications were completed last week. Harvesting began with yields in the 50 to over 80 bu/acre range. Spring cereals are in the soft dough to hard dough stage and some pre-harvest applications on early seeded crop may begin later this week. Canola and field peas are pod filling. The soybean crop is at the R4 (podding and pod filling) growth stage. Sunflowers are in early to mid flowering stages (R5). Corn is tasselling and silking. While reports of soybean aphids and cereal armyworms continue to be received, insect numbers are most often below economic thresholds and few insecticide applications have been warranted. A very limited amount of spraying for cereal armyworms in wheat occurred last week because head clipping was occurring.

Across the region, the majority of hay land and pastureland is rated in good condition. With this past week’s weather, there was a lot of hay cut and baled and some producers made 25 per cent of their feed. With the rain on the weekend, haying is at a standstill for a couple of days until fields dry up. There still remain 30 to 40 per cent of hay fields that are too wet to cut. First cut haying progress is noted as 15 per cent baled or silaged with an additional 10 per cent cut and the remainder of the crop still standing. Second cut haying progress is noted as 40 per cent baled or silaged with 10 per cent cut and the remainder of the crop still standing. Quality is noted as mostly good with first cut alfalfa hay yielding 2 tons/acre and first cut grass/alfalfa hay yielding 1.75 tons/acre. Second cut alfalfa hay was yielding 1.5 tons/acre. Availability of livestock water is adequate and dugouts are noted as full.

Interlake Region

Warm temperatures and humid conditions were felt throughout the Interlake Region. These conditions led to thundershowers on Monday leaving 20 to 40 mm of rainfall in the Selkirk area.

Spraying in the region has slowed as the majority of fungicides have been applied. Winter wheat harvest has started in South Interlake with no reports on quality and yield. Spring cereals vary from soft dough to hard dough stages. Some late seeded cereals are starting to head but will be cut for greenfeed in the weeks to come. Fields in the South Interlake will receive a pre-harvest application towards the end of the week. Canola fields are mostly podded but there still are some late seeded fields in the 15 to 30 per cent bloom. Soybeans are in the R3 stage, corn is in the tasselling/silking stage, and sunflowers are in the flowering stage. Pea fields are starting to turn colour as crops are reaching maturity.

Forage grass seed fields continue to be harvested and swathed. Alfalfa seed fields continue to flower and set pods as the leaf cutter bees enjoy the hot weather.

Fields are being monitored for insect pressure to ensure levels remain below threshold levels. Insect pressures have been low; only reports of some pea fields being sprayed for aphids.

Second cut on hay fields is on-going. Producers continue cutting and baling native grass as yields from the fields are good. Some producers would like a rain to get some dry pastures to produce again. Dugout conditions good.

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