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Glossary of garden terms

As we look through those seed catalogues and plan for a new season, here’s a list of terms to brush up on:

Acidic soil: has a pH below seven, typical of clay soils. Azaleas, camellias, dogwoods and roses like acidic soils.

Alkaline soil: has a pH of seven or higher.

Annual plant: lives one year or less, planted in the spring after the last frost. During this time, the plant grows, blooms, produces seeds, and dies.

Balled and burlapped: is when the roots of the plant have soil attached and are held in place with burlap or some other material.

Bare root: is when the roots of the plant are bare, with no soil.

Biennial: is two seasons duration, from germination to maturity and death, usually developing vegetative growth the first year and flowering, fruiting and dying the second year. Biennials need exposure to winter temperatures to trigger flowering or fruit production the second year.

Bulb: is a resting stage of a plant that is usually formed underground and consists of a short stem base bearing one or more buds enclosed in fleshy leaves and buds (tulip, daffodil, etc.).

Corm: is a rounded, thick, modified underground stem base bearing membranous or scaly leaves and buds (gladiolus, crocus, etc.).

Crown: is the base of the plant, where the stem and root meet.

Cultivar: is a cultivated variety or strain that originated and has persisted under human cultivation.

Deadheading: is removing the dead blossoms. If a plant is termed “self-cleaning,” the blossoms fall off on their own. Deadheading usually extends the blooming season.

Deciduous: is a plant that loses its leaves seasonally, usually in the fall.

Determinate: is when the growth of a plant stops at a certain height (usually in reference to tomatoes).

Dormancy: is the period in the life cycle of a plant where it is “asleep” and not actively growing, brought about by cool temperatures and shorter day length.

Evergreen: is a plant that stays green year round.

Floriferous: bears flowers/blooms freely.

Germination: is the sprouting of a seed and the commencement of growth. Also used to describe the starting of plants from seeds.

Grafted plant: is when the top (desirable) part of the plant is grafted onto rootstock, usually of a hardier or less rare plant.

Heirloom seeds: are mostly open-pollinated seeds that have been planted and passed down for generations. Most lack disease resistance.

Herbaceous plant: dies back to the ground in winter and returns again in the spring.

Herbicide: is a chemical used to destroy undesirable plants and vegetation.

Hybrid seed: is the result of cross-pollination of parents that differ in size, colour, taste or other traits. Seeds from hybrid plants cannot be saved and used again, as they will revert back to one of the parents.

Indeterminate: is a plant that continues growing until pinched or killed by frost (opposite of determinate). These plants usually require staking.

Organic seed: has been grown and harvested without being exposed to any inorganic chemicals, fertilizers, hormones, etc.

Pelleted seeds: are small seeds (petunias, pentas etc.) that have been coated with an inert material such as clay to make them easier to handle.

Perennial: is a plant that lives for three or more seasons. Perennials may not bloom the first season planted, especially ones that are shipped bare root.

Rhizome: is the somewhat elongated, usually horizontal subterranean plant stem that is often thickened by deposits of reserved food material that produces shoots above and below the roots (bearded iris).

Rootstock: is the root system of a more common or hardy variety that is used to graft a more desirable variety onto, usually roses and/or standard forms.

Self-pollinating plants: do not require pollen from another plant in order to produce fruit.

Standard: is a shrub or herb grown with an erect main stem so that it forms or resembles a tree.

Sucker: is undesirable growth coming from the rootstock of a grafted plant.

Treated seed: has been treated with an insecticide or fungicide to aid in preventing soil insects or disease from destroying the seed prior to germination.

Tuber: is a short, fleshy, usually underground stem bearing minute scaly leaves, each of which bears a bud in its axil and is potentially able to produce a new plant (iris potato, caladium, tuberose begonia).

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