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Moisture stress seen in crops, rain needed to fill out grains

Manitoba Crop Report and Crop Weather report for August 13

Southwest Region

Little to no rain over the past week.  Crops are turning quickly due to hot and dry conditions.  Harvest is starting in most areas.

Winter wheat and fall rye are being harvested.  Yields are reported as average with good quality.

Spring cereal harvest has started in early seeded crops.  Pre-harvest applications and swathing is ongoing.  Yield and quality are hard to determine at this time.  There are reports of average yields and good quality as well as reports of lower than average yields.  Low bushel weights have been reported in oat and barley.

Canola is turning, swathing has started in early seeded fields.  Fields with low rainfall have short plants with small or aborted pods.

Field pea harvest has started.  Yields are average with good quality.  Plants look healthy with few disease issues and are standing well.

Flax has completed flowering and is starting to turn.

Majority of the soybean crop is in the R6 stage.  Many soybean crops are exhibiting moisture stress on hills or light land by dropping leaves and browning of leaves and pods.  Rain is needed to reduce the impact of the dry conditions.

Sunflowers are in the R5 stage with some of the earlier fields in the R6 stage.  Corn is tasselled and starting to fill cobs.  Sunflowers and corn are starting to show stress from heat and dry conditions with leaves curling and lower leaves starting to brown off.

Pastures are poor to fair in most areas.  Some producers have started supplemental feed on pasture.  First cut hay is completed in most areas, and some second haying has been done.  Haying is being done in sloughs due to the dry conditions.  Dugout are about 40 per cent full with some producers having to supply water to pastures.

Northwest Region

A mix of weather this past week.  Temperatures were very hot reaching the mid to high thirties through the week with overnight temperatures cooling to single digits.  Rainfall was limited to 13 mm at The Pas although there was heavy dew overnight in many areas. Soil moisture conditions are adequate in all areas of the region with the exception of The Pas where fields are saturated.  Hail and wind damage from last week’s storm is still being assessed.  In the Swan River area some areas had a small amount of damage while other fields were completely wiped out.  Another storm rolled through Birch River area late Sunday night bringing more hail, the extent of the damage from this latest storm event is unknown at this time.

High temperatures advanced crops quickly.  Harvest of fall rye and winter wheat is underway in the Dauphin area.  Spring cereals, including wheat, barley and oats are in the dough stage and ripening.  Some fields of wheat are being desiccated in the Swan River area.  The pea harvest is ongoing and lentils have been combined; no reports on yield have been received.

Canola is in the pod-filling stage with some fields starting to ripen.  The odd field of canola has been swathed although this is not general throughout the region. Soybeans are in the R3 to R4 stage.

Some spraying for bertha armyworm is taking place in canola in the Durban/Benito area.   Fusarium head blight is present in many wheat and barley fields.

With the exception of The Pas, forages across the region would benefit from a good rain.  First cut tame hay and most of the native hay harvest has been completed.  Second cut hay harvest continues in areas with sufficient moisture.  Producers affected by the dry conditions have begun sourcing alternative feeds.  Cereal silage yields are average to above areas in areas with adequate moisture.  Cereal silage yields where adequate Pastures north of Ste. Rose and around Eddystone are deteriorating quickly with dugouts drying up.

Central Region

Sunny and warm to hot daytime temperatures for most of the week with air temperatures reaching 35 to 40 degrees Celsius over the weekend. Nighttime temperatures were moderate to cool. No meaningful rainfall reported in the region during the week, soil moisture conditions continue to deteriorate across the region.

Winter cereals are ripe and harvest is well underway to complete. Yields vary widely; 30 to 80 bu/ac for winter wheat and 40 to 90 bu/ac for fall rye with good quality reported. Higher yields reported in the Western side of the region on the escarpment where moisture was not as limited as in the Red River Valley.

Spring wheat in the Red River Valley is yielding 40 to 70 bu/ac. On the escarpment, the earliest spring wheat yields are 60 to 90 bu/ac. Grain quality is good with good protein levels and low fusarium damaged kernel counts.  Swathing and harvest continues in oats with yields ranging from 70 to 120 bu/ac.

Harvested has started in barley, yields reported as 80 to 100 bu/ac in the Morden area.

Corn is developing rapidly and most fields are in the milk to dough stage.  Corn in the Red River Valley is showing signs of moisture stress.

Soybean fields are in R5 to R7 stage and most advanced in the Red River Valley.  Soybeans are experiencing moisture stress.

Canola is maturing rapidly and fields are being swathed. Flea beetle feeding to swathed canola has been reported on the edge of some fields. Bertha armyworm and diamondback moth larvae feeding is noticeable in many canola fields, but for the most part damage remains below the economic threshold.

Bolls are developing in flax, 80 per cent brown bolls reported in early fields. Sunflowers are in the R6 to R7 stage. Field peas are mature and are being desiccated with some harvested in the Holland to Treherne area.  Below average yields reported.

Edible bean fields are maturing prematurely given the hot and dry conditions and fields are turning rapidly.

Irrigation continues on potato fields. Some potato fields have been desiccated to terminate top growth ahead of harvest.

Pasture conditions continue to deteriorate. Hay yields are well below normal due to the dryer conditions. Green feed is being cut to help make up for the hay shortfall, as well as cutting of ditches and dried up sloughs. High nitrate levels in green feed are reported in the Gladstone area due to the drought conditions. Some second cut alfalfa was taken with good harvested quality where moisture was adequate but most fields have too poor regrowth to harvest. More cereal straw than usual is being harvested to make up for the forage shortfall. Livestock producers are sourcing alternative feed sources to meet their needs. Livestock water supply is adequate, but water levels are dropping in dugouts.

Eastern Region

Above average temperatures and no notable rainfall. Soil moisture conditions on crop land were rated as 90 per cent adequate in northern and central areas, and 40 per cent adequate, 30 per cent short and 30 per cent very short in southern areas.

Winter wheat harvest is complete with yields ranging from 55 to 70 bu/acre.  Desiccation and swathing is complete in spring cereals and harvest has begun.  Spring wheat harvest is 20 per cent complete with 55 to 70 bu/ac yields. Quality is good, protein as high as 15 per cent.  Oat harvest is approximately 15 per cent complete with 80 to 130 bu/ac yields.  Light bushel weights reported in some oat fields.  Overall spring cereal yields and quality are trending higher moving north across the Eastern region, reflecting similar rainfall patterns.

In canola, most swathing is complete and pre-harvest applications are at least 60 per cent complete.

Soybeans are in the late R5 to early R6 growth stages.  Early maturing varieties have moved quickly into R6 and are demonstrating leaf yellowing and leaf drop.  Wilting and pre-mature ripening is evident in fields with lighter soil or higher soil salinity.

Sunflowers were mostly in early R7 with some heads still in R6.  Corn is in the milk to early dough growth stages.

Hay and pasture moisture conditions were rated as 30 per cent adequate, 40 per cent short and 40 per cent very short.  Hay crop conditions were rated as 40 per cent good, 20 per cent fair, 20 per cent poor and 20 per cent very poor.  Pasture conditions were rated as 20 per cent good, 20 per cent fair, 40 per cent poor and 20 per cent very poor.  Beef producers are 90 per cent done first cut grass hay with good quality and 40 to 60 per cent of normal yields.  Yields of   0.75 to 1.5 tons/acre for alfalfa, 1 to 1.25 tons/acre for grass/alfalfa hay, 0.5 to 0.75 tons/acre for tame hay and 0.25 to 0.5 tons/acre for wild hay.  Second cut is 50 per cent done with below average yields of 0.5 to 0.75 tons per acre and good quality.  Producers are looking for more feed.   Dugouts are one quarter to one third full.

Interlake Region

Hot temperatures coupled with trace if any rainfall rapidly advanced crops.  Crop injury due to hail the previous week in Gunton-Teulon looks to be more damaging than early reports indicated.

Most crops are shorter than normal, a result of extended dry periods; lighter textured soils are most impacted, with lower yields. Many parts of the Interlake are looking for more rain.

Forage grass seed harvest is complete.  Yields have been average to well below average. Early reports: perennial ryegrass 500-700 lbs. uncleaned; timothy 90-200 lbs.; trefoil 300 lbs.    Some fields baled when seed set did not warrant combining.

Fall rye harvest continues, 70 to 90 bu/ac yields in hybrid fall rye.  Desiccation is complete in most spring cereals, swathing continues where staginess is an issue.  Early barley yields reported 35 to 80 bu/ac; 40 to 120 bu/ac in oats, with light bushel weights.  Some oats and barley fields taken for silage due to feed shortages. Spring wheat yields range from 30 to 75 bu/ac, higher yields on clay soils. Protein ranges from 13.5 to over 17 per cent.

The majority of early seeded canola has been swathed.  Most desiccation in straight cut fields is complete.

Field pea harvest continues, reporting 25 to 60 bu/ac. Flax fields are changing colour rapidly.  Brown bolls are evident in the earliest seeded flax fields. Fababeans have been desiccated.

Soybeans look good, but pod fill is a concern in fields not getting the rains.  Some leaf colour change is noticeable in early maturing varieties; most fields are R4-R6.  Corncobs have formed, and fill looks promising.  Seed alfalfa fields are ripening.

Insect pest concerns are low.  A few headlands have been sprayed for grasshoppers. A few bertha armyworm larvae have been found; majority of fields well below threshold.

Heat and lack of rain has stalled grass growth in pastures and hayfields.  Alfalfa growth has slowed considerably. Some hayfields being grazed.‎ Silage corn is exhibiting signs of moisture stress in the driest areas.

Water is being pumped and hauled for livestock consumption; water quality in dugouts is poor.

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