When I was young, my mom used to save the water from cooked vegetables and put it in soup. She also saved water from boiled potatoes if she was making bread the next day. The potato water contained starch to feed the yeast, so the bread turned out better with potato water, she said.
We rarely threw any food away. Leftover meat became the basis of soup or stew, and stale bread became bread pudding. When I learned to bake, my mother could scrape enough dough from the bowl to make one more cookie. I couldn’t even see any dough left in the bowl.
Sometimes I wondered what prompted this thriftiness and careful avoidance of wasting food.
The other day, I was doing some sorting and cleaning when I came upon some interesting cookbooks from the 1940s, which a friend had given me. These meal-planning guides were titled “Health for Victory,” and were written during the Second World War. My mother was a young, single woman at the time, working in a defence plant.
If you, your mother or grandmother came of age in the 1940s, chances are these types of books were the go-to guides to stretch food during the war effort.
Maybe some men read these, too, but gender roles were a little different 75 years ago.
During this time period, homemakers were advised to feed themselves and their families from the “Basic 7 Food Groups.” This was the 1940s version of “MyPlate,” which is our present-day icon illustrating our five food groups.
Similar to today’s guide, the food groups were designed to be sure that people had adequate vitamins and minerals from their foods.
Can you guess what the “Basic 7 Food Groups” included? Group One included green and yellow vegetables, and Group Two included oranges, tomatoes, grapefruit and salad greens. Group Three included potatoes and all other vegetables. Group Four included milk and milk products, and Group Five included meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry edible beans, nuts and peanut butter. Group Six included bread, flour and cereal.
We have one “food group” left in this older generation nutrition guidance. Can you guess the remaining food group? If you are thinking butter and fortified margarine, you are correct. (Yes, butter was a food group back then. Sorry, I do not see it returning as a food group any time soon.) In the 1940s, people were encouraged to produce their own food in “victory gardens.” They also were encouraged to preserve food through canning, freezing and drying, and conserve food by avoiding waste. The 1940s guides reminded the readers to “use every crumb, every drop.”
Food was considered a “vital war material.” Food was being sent to support the troops to maintain their stamina and strength, and ration stamps for meat were to be used carefully. People were advised to stretch their meat budget by using more beans, lentils and other pulse foods.
Now let’s flash forward to today’s guidelines. Every five years, new national “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” are released. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines were released in January 2016 because nutrition often is a controversial topic.
Today we have vast amounts of information at our fingertips. I paged through the fragile pages of old cookbooks and perused today’s guidelines on a website on my tablet computer. I was pleasantly reminded that even though times have changed and our knowledge about nutrition has grown tremendously, overall food guidance really is quite similar.
Our ancestors were taught to eat a variety of foods to get the nutrients their body needed. We still need variety. However, we may need to remember moderation more than our food-rationing ancestors, who had a much lower incidence of overweight than today’s generation.
Despite all of our technical advancements and wide availability of all sorts of foods, we can learn some vital lessons from a previous generation. Why not try our best to waste less food, grow more of our own food or buy food grown close to home, eat a variety of foods and prepare it in our own kitchens?
The following are the key recommendations from the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines. A healthy eating pattern includes:
- A variety of vegetables from all of the subgroups — dark green, red and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy and other;
- Fruits, especially whole fruits;
- Grains, at least half of which are whole grains;
- Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages;
- A variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), and nuts, seeds and soy products;
Oatmeal Jam Squares
We’re using a Canadian substitute for the “Queen of Rice Pudding” recipe accompanying Julie’s column this week. Canadians had to tighten our belts, ration ingredients and cook simple meals and desserts during this time in our history as well. Here’s one from Ration Recipes published by Robin Hood Flour Mills Ltd. The little recipe book featured several recipes to help householders reduce the amount of butter, sugar and meat in their meals.
They were thoroughly home tested, “good to eat and easy on both your budget and ration coupons,” the booklets said. These were “scrumptious” squares for a special occasion, said Ration Recipes.
One can’t help but think the sustained love of oatmeal squares is a preserved memory from wartime years in Canada.
- 3/4 c. shortening
- 1/2 c. brown sugar, firmly packed
- 2-1/2 c. Robin Hood Rolled Oats
- 1 c. Robin Hood Flour (measured after sifting)
- 1 tsp. baking soda
- 1/2 tsp. salt
- Thick jam
Cream shortening, which has been left to soften at room temperature, add sugar and blend until very smooth. Add Robin Hood Rolled Oats and mix thoroughly. Sift flour, soda and salt and blend with first mixture until crumbly. Put one-half the mixture on a well-greased 9×12-inch baking pan, and press firmly into a smooth layer. Spread with jam (plum or strawberry gives an excellent flavour). Sprinkle remaining crumb mixture over the top of the jam and pat until smooth. The whole mixture should be no more than 3/4 inch thick. Bake in a “moderate oven” (350 F) for 30 minutes. While warm cut into squares.
Makes 30 squares.